What functional modules exist in omnichannel architecture?
In order to optimally support omnichannel customer journeys, many different functionalities are necessary. In this architecture, the following subjects are key: customer, content, product, pricing (and promotions), stock and transactions. The below overview shows the most relevant functionalities of an omnichannel retail architecture:
In the above illustration, it has to be noted that the different elements can be part of one integrated system, or part of several loose joined systems (best-of-breed). A hybrid between these two systems is also a possibility.
In general, there are several main principles to be distinguished within this landscape:
All direct interaction with consumers happens through several internal channels (sales channels, communication channels and devices) such as the webshop, the cashier, an app, but also using external channels such as shop-in-shops or international trade platforms.
All (integration with) third parties, that can for instance be product vendor, content and/or service provider. Examples of this are logistic parties or payment providers.
Omnichannel integration layer
Functions as a 'conductor' for all customer journeys and supporting processes. When I sel a product online and receive it back in the physical store, who will tell me where it should go from there? How will I know which amount to credit the customer? How many loyalty points should be taken back from the customer account? Was the product bought with a promotion? This layer (OIL) also supports the integration between parties and systems (interface management).
Analyzing & Reporting
On the basis of all relevant available data (usually a combination from multiple sources and systems) analyses and reports are generated.
Single truth data repositories
The abovementioned integration layer and all surrounding systems and parties should all use the same data. For all types of data a 'single source of truth' needs to be determined. From this single truth repository, all involved parties and systems will be provided with data (the single truth).
Applications and sources
For both functionalities and data, the underlying data comes from (customer journey- and back office-) applications, who deliver the correct system support and data to the functional domains.